Wednesday, October 4, 2017

Life Goes On Like Gangbusters: An Orange Tree Story

Baby tree blooming next to storm-downed orange tree.
Life is surreal.  That's my theme for the month.  Between Hurricane Harvey and Halloween, life is indeed surreal.

A couple of weeks after the storm blasted over our house, we came home and took a look at the damage.  Our huge orange tree took flight, right out of the ground, roots and all.  Amazingly, we found that several baby orange trees were growing all around the spot where the "mother" tree had been.

Mother-tree out of the ground and cut off by a neighbor.
Within another week, the baby trees were blooming and starting to set little fruits.  The Texas A&M University tree expert who visited our town said that this happens off-season when trees are defoliated or otherwise threatened.  They think it's spring, and they bloom their hearts out.

Baby mandarin orange trees next to the hole.
It remains to be seen if these little guys will produce actual edible fruit after blooming in the fall instead of spring, but we do have pretty warm winters here in Rockport.  They must have sprouted from fallen oranges in previous years, and we didn't notice them.  So we shall see!

Another surreal thing is that my cardboard pots of orange seedlings from the last harvest in March, survived the hurricane and they are thriving.  They rode out the storm in the garage and are just as perky as ever.

Seedlings from last harvest.
In fact, the whole horticultural scene in our town is pretty darned perky.  Mother Nature is definitely bouncing back like gangbusters.

RIP, old friend.  Your legacy lives on.

For more about growing mandarin oranges, see my post:
In Love With Mandarin Oranges

Wednesday, September 27, 2017

Advice From Hurricane-Town

Hurricane Tips and Wisdom

Hurricane Harvey hit our town, Rockport, Texas.  The eye of the storm went right over our house.  Having been through this ordeal (and it's not over yet), I thought I'd share some of my own realizations on the subject, based upon my husband's and my experience and that of our friends and neighbors.

EVACUATE if you can.  I can't emphasize this strongly enough.  It's important for your own peace of mind--before, during, and after the storm--and for your safety and survival.  This goes especially for pets and livestock.  Take them with you.

Evacuate early.
Evacuate far away.
Evacuate for lower-category storms also.
Take all of your animals.
Take all of your vehicles.

PREPARE your home for the worst.  The storm might veer off at the last minute, but it could also be worse than expected.  Before you leave, batten down the hatches both indoors and out.

Board-up, shutter-up.
Shut off power, unplug everything.
Empty the fridge and prop it open.
Secure movable outdoor items.
Protect valued indoor items.
Fill jars and bottles with clean water.
Leave rugs down to soak up water.
Place sandbags on both sides of doors.
Open fence gates to allow water flow.

PACK for the coming days. When you leave, you'll need some clothing, important papers, special food and meds, and emergency supplies.  Don't try to take too much--just what you need and what you value most.

Take your necessities.
Take food, water, flashlight, batteries, pet supplies.
Take ID, proof of residence (utility bill or deed).
Take a few comfortable outfits.
Take one set of work clothes and shoes.
Take movable valuables.

KEEP YOUR COOL--this is important.  People react differently to stress.  Figure out how to de-stress yourself, and do it as much as possible while evacuating, waiting through the storm, and after the storm.

Listen to music.
Watch favorite shows and movies.
Play with your pets and kids.
Have yummy snacks.
Talk, talk, talk with close family and friends.
Don't feel like you have to socialize.
Accept help when it's offered.
Offer help when it's needed.

GO BACK ASAP when the storm is over and the roads are open.  Check on your home as soon as you can.  You don't have to stay--make it a day trip the first time.  If you can get in after a day or two, you'll be able to prevent a lot of water and mold damage by cleaning up, tarping the roof, etc.

Bring food, water, and ice.
Bring cleaning supplies.
Bring equipment: chainsaw, dolly, tarps, etc.
Bring gasoline in cans.
Bring a generator (not for your whole house).
Bring insect repellant--whatever formula you like.
Bring flashlights and battery-powered fans.
Bring batteries.
Bring spare tire and flat repair products.
Bring work gloves.
Wear sturdy clothes and boots/shoes.

WAIT FOR POWER.  If you must live in your home before power and other utilities are restored, be prepared for hardship.  You'll need to live pretty much like you're camping.  It will be hot, you won't be able to bathe or flush, mosquitoes will be everywhere, and what you need will be hard to come by.  If you have any health issues, wait until the power is back on.  Even then, things can go wrong--our AC broke from a power surge, and I suffered heat exhaustion 3 times in 6 days.

Stay hydrated.
Cool off frequently.
Take lots of work breaks.
Eat whenever you can.
Turn around, don't drown.
Avoid standing water--in car or on foot.
Report water / gas leaks and downed lines.
Keep your distance from loose power lines.
Don't breathe mold--stay away, throw away.
Get medical attention when you need it.
Keep pets indoors or fenced--they will bolt.


Post-Hurricane Rose Bloom and New Oak Leaves
TAKE IT EASY on yourself.  You have made it through a bona fide disaster.  Your mind will work differently.  You'll be tired, anxious, sad, forgetful, and moody.   This is normal, and it will wear off.  Try not to look at the destruction, and focus on making things better.  Be positive.

YOU WILL CHANGE.  These experiences change us.  After the storm, you might have very different priorities for your life.  That's okay.  It's part of our development as humans.  The key is to be all right with it and move forward.

The trees will grow their leaves back.  Nature will do her best to repopulate your little bit of the Earth.  You will be stronger and better as you get on with your life.

Sunday, June 11, 2017

Crochet Tutorial: Tunisian Ladder Stitch


How to Crochet the Tunisian Ladder Stitch

The Tunisian ladder stitch is an openwork stitch that I developed when searching for Tunisian crochet stitches that were more flexible and useful than the traditional ones. With this new stitch, you’ll get a sturdy mesh fabric if you use the yarn manufacturer’s recommended hook size. With a very large hook you can produce a lighter, more open mesh.

This is what I like to call a “stacked” Tunisian stitch. New rows are made above the old ones, and not in front of or behind them like most traditional Tunisian stitches. This “stacking” helps prevent the severe rolling that often occurs with Tunisian crochet.

Tunisian Ladder Stitch: How to Do It
U.S. crochet terminology


Base Chain
Chain desired number of stitches.

Base Row 1 – Tunisian Purl for first row only
Starting in 2nd loop from hook, [wrap yarn over front of hook counterclockwise, insert hook into next chain, pull yarn to the front – straightening out the yarn-over you just made, wrap yarn clockwise around back of hook, draw yarn through chain and onto hook], repeat to end. The number of loops on hook is equal to the number of chains made for the base chain.

Base Row 2
Ch 1, [draw yarn through both the new loop and next loop on hook], repeat to end, ch 1.  Only 1 loop is left on hook.

Main Row 1 - Tunisian Ladder Stitches
Skip over both the first vertical bar at the end and the next vertical bar, [wrap yarn over front of hook counterclockwise, insert hook through the work front-to-back between previous vertical bar and the next one, pull yarn to the front – straightening out the yarn-over you just made, wrap yarn clockwise around back of hook, draw yarn through to front of work and onto hook, slide the new stitch to top of row close to hook], repeat to end, work 1 more st in the end space.  The number of loops on hook is equal to the number of chains made for the base chain.

Main Row 2 (same as Base Row 2)
Ch 1, [draw yarn through both the new loop and next loop on hook], repeat to end, ch 1.  Only 1 loop left on hook.  Gently tug on the finished row stitches to lock the Tunisian ladder sts in place.

Repeat Main Rows 1 & 2 to desired length.

Tunisian Ladder Stitch: Photo Tutorial
U.S. crochet terminology


Base Chain
Tunisian Ladder Stitch Foundation Chain

Make as many chains as you want stitches to be in each row.

Base Row 1 – Tunisian Purl for first row only

Tunisian Ladder Stitch Base Row 1 Start

Make the first stitch in second chain from hook, [wrap the working yarn over the front of the hook counterclockwise,

Tunisian Ladder Stitch Main Row 1 Purl Stitch Continued

insert the hook into the next chain, pull the working yarn to the front – straightening out the yarn-over you just made,

Tunisian Ladder Stitch Main Row 1 Continued Purl Stitch

wrap the yarn clockwise around the back of the hook, draw the yarn through the chain and onto the hook],

Tunisian Ladder Stitch Base Row 1 Cast-Ons

repeat to end. The number of loops on the hook will equal the number of chains you made for the base chain.

Base Row 2
Tunisian Ladder Stitch Base Row 2 Start Casting Off

Chain 1, [draw a loop of the working yarn through both the new loop and the next loop on the hook],

Tunisian Ladder Stitch Base Row 2 End

repeat to end, chain 1.  There should be only 1 loop left on the hook.  Looking at your work, you'll see a series of vertical bars going down the row.  It may help to give the row a stretch end-to-end, to straighten up the bars.

Tip: when you're ready to put down your work and do something else, place a removable stitch marker in the loop on the hook at this point. If you do it before the ch1 at the end, the marker may pull through the last 2 loops and undo some of your work.


Main Row 1 - Tunisian Ladder Stitches

Tunisian Ladder Stitch Main Row 1 Start of Purl Stitch

Skip over both the first vertical bar at the end and the next vertical bar, [wrap the yarn over the front of the hook counterclockwise,

Tunisian Ladder Stitch Main Row 1 Continued Purl Stitch

insert the hook through the work front-to-back between the previous vertical bar and the next one, pull the yarn to the front – straightening out the yarn-over you just made,

Tunisian Ladder Stitch Main Row 1 Continued Purl Stitch

wrap the yarn clockwise around the back of the hook, draw the yarn through to the front of the work and onto hook,

Tunisian Ladder Stitch Main Row 1 End of First Stitch

slide the stitch to the top of the row close to the hook],

Tunisian Ladder Stitch Main Row 1 Finished

repeat to end, work 1 more st in the end space.

Main Row 2   (same as Base Row 2)

Tunisian Ladder Stitch Main Row 2 First Cast-Off

Chain 1, [draw a loop of the working yarn through both the new loop and the next loop on the hook],

Tunisian Ladder Stitch Main Row 2 Ladders

repeat to end, chain 1.  There should be only 1 loop left on the hook.

Tunisian Ladder Stitch Lock Stitches in Place

Gently tug on the finished row stitches to lock the Tunisian ladder stitches in place.

Repeat Main Rows 1 - 2 to desired length.


Upper Edge

Tunisian Ladder Stitch Final Row: Top Edge

For a neat, uniform edge on your final row, make a single-crochet stitch between vertical bars: skip over the first 2 vertical bars, sc to end, and make 1 more sc in the final space.  With each sc, pull through both loops on hook, leaving only the newly made loop on the hook--no extra loops this time.

Some Tips for Tunisian Crochet

Here are a few things to try if you encounter curling, slanting, or stiffness:
  • Use a larger-than-usual hook, 3-5 sizes larger than recommended on the yarn label.
  • Try thinner yarn.
  • Use relaxed, less springy yarn, like cotton instead of wool.
  • Do not work tightly.
  • Be sure to skip over the first vertical bar(s) in each casting-on row (main row 1).
  • Crochet a border around your work.

You can find additional information on Tunisian crochet here:

Get Started with Tunisian Crochet
    includes a photo tutorial on the basic Tunisian stitch
Tunisian Purl Stitch
    a photo tutorial on how to crochet the Tunisian Purl stitch
How to Stop Crying Over Tunisian Crochet
    troubleshooting Tunisian crochet

Saturday, April 29, 2017

The Corrected Whimsical Witch-Hat and Elfitude Patterns


Whimsical Witch-Hat Erratum

Well this is embarrassing.

I have replaced the Whimsical Witch-Hat and Elfitude patterns with corrected versions.  The crochet hook I used for developing the patterns was a brand-new one with the wrong size indicated on the molded label and on the printed package.  To make these hats, please use US size L, or 8 mm.  If you have a Boye hook that says 'N', it might be incorrect like mine, and it will work fine.  The best bet is to measure your hook with a caliper to get the millimeters.  And always make a gauge swatch. 

Thank you for your patience!

Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Avocado-Tomato Salad


Summer Avocado Salad 
This salad is a frequent meal at our house.  We have it several times a week, because it's just so darned healthy for us.  And it's real easy to make.  Luckily, since we live in South Texas we can get avocados and tomatoes year-round.   We like  to have this for dinner with a fruit crumble for dessert.

AVOCADO-TOMATO SALAD
serves 2 as a main dish

1 avocado, cut in cubes
1 large tomato, diced
salt
3 cups baby spinach leaves
hemp oil* or olive oil
pumpkin seeds

Wash the spinach and divide between 2 large salad bowls.  Small mixing bowls are a nice size, also.

Salt the diced tomato and place half on top of the spinach in each bowl.

Salt the cubed avocado and place half on top of tomatoes in each bowl.

Drizzle with hemp or olive oil and sprinkle about 2 teaspoons pumpkin seeds on top of each serving.


* If you haven't tried hemp oil, you are missing something wonderful.  It has a nutty taste and lots of healthy omega-3 fatty acids. Don't overdo it though, because the flavor can overpower your salad.

Monday, April 17, 2017

Crochet Tutorial: Tunisian Purl Stitch


How to Crochet the Tunisian Purl Stitch

Tunisian purl is a variation on the basic Tunisian stitch, or afghan stitch.  It produces a right-side surface that looks a bit like knitted garter stitch, and it's a great way to prevent curled edges.  As an added bonus, the other side has a very nice ridged look.

This is by far, my preferred stitch in Tunisian crochet, and I recommend using it instead of the basic Tunisian stitch.

Tunisian Purl Stitch: How to Do It
U.S. crochet terminology


Base Chain
Chain loosely or use one size larger hook and chain tightly.  Make as many chains as you want stitches to be in each row.

Base Row 1
Start in 2nd chain from hook, [insert hook into chain, pull yarn through, and leave loop on hook], repeat to end. You'll have the same number of loops on the hook as the number of chains you made for the base chain.

Base Row 2
Ch 1, [pull yarn through both the new loop and next loop on hook], repeat to end, ch 1.  Only 1 loop is left on hook.

Main Row 1 - Tunisian Purl Stitches
Skip over first vertical bar at the end,  [wrap yarn over front of hook counterclockwise, insert hook into next vertical bar, pull yarn to the front - straightening out the yarn-over you just made, wrap yarn clockwise around back of hook, draw yarn through the bar and onto hook], repeat to end.  Be sure to work the final vertical bar at the end of the row, next to the end chain.

Main Row 2 (same as Base Row 2)
Ch 1, [pull yarn through both the new loop and next loop on hook], repeat to end, ch 1.  Only 1 loop left on hook.

Repeat Main Rows 1 & 2 to desired length.

Tunisian Purl Stitch: Photo Tutorial
U.S. crochet terminology


Base Chain
Tunisian Purl Stitch Foundation Chain
Chain loosely or use one size larger hook and chain tightly.  Make as many chains as you want stitches to be in each row.

Base Row 1

Tunisian Purl Stitch Base Row 1 Start

Start in the second chain from the hook, [insert your hook into the chain, draw the yarn through the chain and onto the hook], repeat to end.

Tunisian Purl Stitch Base Row 1 Cast-Ons

You'll have as many loops on the hook as the number of chains you made for the base chain.

Base Row 2

Tunisian Purl Stitch Base Row 2 Start Casting Off

Chain 1, [pull a loop of the working yarn through both the new loop and the next loop on the hook], repeat to end, chain 1.  There should be only 1 loop left on the hook.

Looking at your work, you'll see a series of vertical bars going down the row.  It may help to give the row a stretch end-to-end, to straighten up the bars.

Main Row 1 - Tunisian Purl Stitches

Tunisian Purl Stitch Main Row 1 Start of Purl Stitch

Skip over the first vertical bar at the end by the hook,  [wrap the working yarn over the front of the hook counterclockwise,

Tunisian Purl Stitch Main Row 1 Continued Purl Stitch
insert the hook into the next vertical bar, pull working yarn to the front - straightening out the yarn-over you just made,

Tunisian Purl Stitch Main Row 1 Continued Purl Stitch
wrap the yarn clockwise around the back of the hook, draw the yarn through the bar and onto the hook], repeat to end.

Tunisian Purl Stitch Main Row 1 Last Stitch in Row

Be sure to work the final vertical bar at the very end of the row, next to the end chain.

Main Row 2   (same as Base Row 2)

Tunisian Purl Stitch Main Row 2 First Cast-Off

Chain 1, [pull a loop of the working yarn through both the new loop and the next loop on the hook], repeat to end, chain 1.  There should be only 1 loop left on the hook.

Repeat Main Rows 1 - 2 to desired length.


Upper Edge
Tunisian Purl Stitch Last Row: Top Edge

For a neat, uniform edge on your final row, make a Tunisian purl stitch in each vertical bar - including the first bar on the end, pulling through both loops on hook, and leaving only the newly made loop on the hook - no extra loops this time.

You Might Have a Few Surprise Problems


Most standard Tunisian stitches have some problems: curling, slanting, and stiffness.  Here are a few things to try:
  • Use a larger-than-usual hook, 3-5 sizes larger than recommended on the yarn label.
  • Try thinner yarn.
  • Use relaxed, less springy yarn, like cotton instead of wool.
  • Do not work tightly.
  • Be sure to skip over the first vertical bar in each casting-on row (main row 1).
  • Don't miss the last vertical bar for your last stitch in a casting-on row.  It can be hidden with the end-chain.
  • Crochet a border around your work.

You can find additional information on Tunisian crochet here:

Get Started with Tunisian Crochet
    includes a tutorial on the basic Tunisian stitch
Tunisian Ladder Stitch Tutorial
   how to crochet the new Tunisian ladder stitch
How to Stop Crying Over Tunisian Crochet
    troubleshooting Tunisian crochet

Tuesday, April 11, 2017

My Sourdough Routine


Sourdough Bread Partly Made in Bread Machine
Whole Wheat Sourdough Bread

When I decided to bake the bread for our household, which meant a loaf every other day, I had been dabbling in sourdough a bit.  But my mind was boggled by the prospect of scheduling the feedings and bakings around the rest of my life.  I searched the Internet to see what other folks did, and found very little that would work for me.

So over time, and with the help of some really good websites, I worked out a routine for managing the starter, the discard, and the bread.  Here's what I came up with.

General Schedule

  • Feed the starter every 12 hours.  For me, late morning and before bed are best.  That way, the starter is nice and bubbly for early afternoon breadmaking.

  • Bake bread every other day.

  • Save starter discard in a jar in the fridge and make pancakes in the morning, or just compost it.

Revive Your Starter

The first thing you need to do is get your starter into good, bubbly condition.  You've probably received it from somebody and kept it in the fridge for weeks or months.  Or maybe you took a break from sourdough, and your old starter has been in the back of the fridge for a year.  No worries.
  1. Let the starter come to about room temperature.

  2. Stir well.  It's better not to pour off the liquid because you don't want to lose any of that good bacteria.  I use a table knife to stir, because it aerates the starter well.

  3. Put 1/2 cup of starter in a large, clean jar.  A 1-quart canning jar is good.  If it has ounce measurements on the side, pour 4 oz. of starter in the bottom.

  4. Add 1 cup flour and 1/2 cup water.  Stir well. Use the same kind of flour that you'll be using to bake the bread.  I use 100% whole wheat flour.

  5. Cover the jar with a breathable square of fabric that won't let insects in.  A lightweight shirt-weight material works well.  You can also cut a paper towel into a 5-inch square. Cheesecloth is too open--fruit flies will get through.  Secure it with a rubber band or by screwing on the jar's canning lid band.

  6. Store the starter in a warm place for about 12 hours.  Then repeat the process.

  7. You'll have leftover starter every time you feed it.  You can use this discard to make pancakes, muffins, etc.  But the first few discards will be very sour.  Best to compost them, because your pancakes will taste like pickle juice.

  8. Repeat these super-feedings until your starter gets a lot of bubbles in it as it sits between feedings.  When it's happy and bubbling, you can shift to normal feedings with less flour.

Whole Wheat Sourdough Starter

Feed Your Starter

If you bake bread frequently, you'll want to keep your starter fed all the time.  If not, you can store it in the fridge for a few days, and plan a day or two of feedings to revive it before you bake with it.
  1. Stir the starter to distribute the bacteria well and to aerate it.

  2. Pour 1/2 cup starter into a clean jar.

  3. Stir in 1/2 cup flour and 1/3 cup water.  Use the same flour you'll be baking with.

  4. Cover the jar with fabric or paper towel (not cheesecloth).  Secure with rubber band or jar band.

  5. Let sit in a warm place for about 12 hours.  On top of the fridge works well, unless you live in a hot climate.  Then you'll want to find the coolest part of the house for your starter, but not the fridge.

  6. Repeat this process every 12 hours.

Make Your Bread

I have found a way to bake good quality bread without heating up the house and without having to knead by hand.  I enlisted some help from my bread machine, and now I have the best of both worlds: homemade, good quality bread and a cool house.

Kneading is fun, but to produce the best quality bread, your dough has to be pretty wet.  If you have a way to knead with a machine, like a stand mixer or a bread machine, you'll get a nice loaf of bread.  If you knead wet dough by hand you'll be dealing with very sticky dough.

My way is to use a bread machine for some of the steps, but not all.
  1. Put your bread ingredients into the bread machine pan. (See recipe below.)

  2. Place the pan into the bread machine, set it for the type of bread you're making, like whole wheat large loaf, and start it.

  3. Set your kitchen timer for however long your machine takes to get to the rise part of the cycle.  Mine takes 1 hour for a large whole wheat loaf.

  4. After the machine has kneaded the bread and your timer goes off, unplug the machine and remove the pan.

  5. Put 1 cup water in a 2-cup glass microwaveable measuring cup and microwave on High for 2 minutes. 

  6. Turn the bread dough onto a floured surface.  Cover with waxed paper and let rest for 5 minutes.

  7. Form the dough into a ball and put it  into a medium mixing bowl with a little olive oil in the bottom.  Gently roll the dough around and over in the oil to coat it completely.

  8. Cover the bowl with a square of waxed paper and then a barely damp cup towel.

  9. Place the covered bowl in your microwave, with the hot water moved to the corner.  DO NOT MICROWAVE THE DOUGH.

  10. Set your kitchen timer for an hour and a half.  This will be the first rise.

  11. When the timer goes off, remove the bowl from the microwave.  Give the water inside 1.5 minutes on High.

  12. Gently punch the dough down to get any big bubbles out, reform into a ball, and let rise again in the turned-off microwave.  This second rise will be 1 hour.

  13. After the second rise, remove the bowl from the microwave and give the water 1 minute on High.

  14. Turn the dough out onto a floured surface, remove the paddle, and form it into a loaf.  There are good instructions here, online.

  15. Place the dough into the bread machine pan, cover with the waxed paper / cup towel setup and let rise in the turned-off microwave for 45 minutes. 

  16. Remove from microwave, and with a sharp knife, gently slash down the length of the bread dough.  A sharp serrated knife works best.

  17. Set the pan with dough in the machine. Don't pop it in, because it will deflate the risen dough somewhat.  The stirring mechanism won't be needed.  Plug the machine in, set it on the bake-only cycle, and enter the number of  minutes you want to bake the bread.  I use 45 minutes, but you will want to experiment with this.  Start the bake cycle.

  18. Set your kitchen timer for the time you entered.

  19. When the baking is finished, remove the pan from the machine, release the loaf of bread onto a cooling rack, and let it cool for at least 30 minutes before eating.  If you're going to slice the whole loaf, let it cool completely.

Whole Wheat Sourdough Bread
(Helped by Bread Machine)

3/4 cup water
1-1/4 tsp. salt
1 Tbsp. plus 1.5 tsp. maple syrup
3/4 cup sourdough starter
2 Tbsp. plus 1 tsp. olive oil
2-2/3 cups whole wheat flour

In a mixing bowl, stir together the first 5 ingredients.  Pour into bread machine pan.

With a wire whisk, fluff up the flour in the bag. Gently scoop flour into measuring cups and level-off with a knife held flat.  Add to baking pan on top of the starter mixture.

Insert pan into bread machine and run it on the "whole wheat" and "large loaf" settings until it finishes kneading.  Stop the machine and remove the pan.

Transfer the dough to a floured board.  Remove the bread machine paddle.  Cover dough with a piece of waxed paper and let rest for 5 minutes.

Form dough into a ball and place in a medium-sized mixing bowl with 1/2 tsp. olive oil in the bottom.  Roll the ball around to coat.  Cover with waxed paper and a damp cup towel.  Let rise in a warm place for 1.5 hours.

Gently punch dough down, re-form ball, cover, and let rise for 1 hour.

Transfer dough to floured board.  With a floured wooden rolling pin, gently roll into an oval shape about 1.5 inches thick.  Then roll up like a jelly roll, pinching seams as you roll (2-3 times).  When rolled up, pinch the top edge onto the roll.  Place the roll seam-down, and turn the ends under so the loaf is the length of the pan.  Pinch ends underneath to secure.  Place loaf in pan, cover, and let rise 45 minutes.

Gently set pan with loaf in bread machine and set it for "bake only."  Bake for 45 minutes.

When done, turn out the bread and let cool on rack for at least 30 minutes before cutting.